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In the previous section, we demonstrated how to use jwt authentication. I believe you have mastered the basic use of jwt. In this section, let’s take a look at how to use api service middleware.

Middleware classification

In go-zero, middleware can be divided into routing middleware and global middleware. Routing middleware refers to certain specific routes that need to implement middleware logic, which is similar to jwt and does not place the routes under jwt:xxx Does not use middleware functions, The service scope of global middleware is the entire service.

Middleware use

Here we take the search service as an example to demonstrate the use of middleware

Routing middleware

  • Rewrite the search.api file and add the middleware declaration

      $ cd service/search/cmd/api
      $ vim search.api
      type SearchReq struct {}
      type SearchReply struct {}
          jwt: Auth
          middleware: Example // Routing middleware declaration
      service search-api {
          @handler search
          get /search/do (SearchReq) returns (SearchReply)
  • Regenerate the api code
      $ goctl api go -api search.api -dir .
      etc/search-api.yaml exists, ignored generation
      internal/config/config.go exists, ignored generation
      search.go exists, ignored generation
      internal/svc/servicecontext.go exists, ignored generation
      internal/handler/searchhandler.go exists, ignored generation
      internal/handler/pinghandler.go exists, ignored generation
      internal/logic/searchlogic.go exists, ignored generation
      internal/logic/pinglogic.go exists, ignored generation
    After the generation is completed, there will be an additional middleware directory under the internal directory, which is the middleware file, and the implementation logic of the subsequent middleware is also written here.
  • Improve resource dependency ServiceContext

     $ vim service/search/cmd/api/internal/svc/servicecontext.go
     type ServiceContext struct {
         Config config.Config
         Example rest.Middleware
     func NewServiceContext(c config.Config) *ServiceContext {
         return &ServiceContext{
             Config: c,
             Example: middleware.NewExampleMiddleware().Handle,
  • Write middleware logic Only one line of log is added here, with the content example middle. If the service runs and outputs example middle, it means that the middleware is in use.

      $ vim service/search/cmd/api/internal/middleware/examplemiddleware.go
      package middleware
      import "net/http"
      type ExampleMiddleware struct {
      func NewExampleMiddleware() *ExampleMiddleware {
              return &ExampleMiddleware{}
      func (m *ExampleMiddleware) Handle(next http.HandlerFunc) http.HandlerFunc {
          return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
              // TODO generate middleware implement function, delete after code implementation
              // Passthrough to next handler if need
              next(w, r)
  • Start service verification
      {"@timestamp":"2021-02-09T11:32:57.931+08","level":"info","content":"example middle"}

Global middleware

call rest.Server.Use

func main() {

    var c config.Config
    conf.MustLoad(*configFile, &c)

    ctx := svc.NewServiceContext(c)
    server := rest.MustNewServer(c.RestConf)
    defer server.Stop()

    // Global middleware
    server.Use(func(next http.HandlerFunc) http.HandlerFunc {
        return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
            logx.Info("global middleware")
            next(w, r)
    handler.RegisterHandlers(server, ctx)

    fmt.Printf("Starting server at %s:%d...\n", c.Host, c.Port)
{"@timestamp":"2021-02-09T11:50:15.388+08","level":"info","content":"global middleware"}

Call another service within the middleware

Pass another service into the middleware by closure, example as below:

// simulated another service
type AnotherService struct{}

func (s *AnotherService) GetToken() string {
    return stringx.Rand()

// regular middleware
func middleware(next http.HandlerFunc) http.HandlerFunc {
    return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        w.Header().Add("X-Middleware", "static-middleware")
        next(w, r)

// the middleware that calls another service
func middlewareWithAnotherService(s *AnotherService) rest.Middleware {
    return func(next http.HandlerFunc) http.HandlerFunc {
        return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
            w.Header().Add("X-Middleware", s.GetToken())
            next(w, r)

For full example, see: https://github.com/zeromicro/zero-examples/tree/main/http/middleware

Copyright © 2019-2021 go-zero all right reserved,powered by GitbookLast UpdateTime: 2021-12-05 09:48:50

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